Anna Sureda, MD, PhD of Hospital Duran i Reynals, Barcelona, Spain talks about the role of stem cell transplantation in the era of targeted therapies in aggressive B-cell lymphomas, with a focus on diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) and mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). Dr Sureda explains the changes that are occurring or may occur as new treatments are emerging. Lymphomas are a major indication for an autologous stem cell transplantation and allogeneic stem cell transplantation is usually performed in patients who relapse after an autologous stem cell transplant. In DLBCL, autologous stem cell transplantation is the standard of care for patients in first chemosensitive relapse or in second complete remission (CR). Autologous stem cell transplant cures approximately 50% of these patients and for those patients who relapse, allogenic transplantation is an option. In mantle cell lymphoma, autologous stem cell transplant is also the standard of care for patients who achieve a first complete remission or partial remission with the use of high-dose cytarabine and brentuximab vedotin containing protocols. Dr Sureda mentions that in Europe, there is an ongoing Phase III prospective clinical trial which is challenging the role of autologous stem cell transplant with ibrutinib use in mantle cell lymphoma. Recorded at the International Conference on Malignant Lymphoma (ICML) 2017 held in Lugano, Switzerland.