Irene Ghobrial, MD, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Boston, MA talks about the many challenges when it comes to looking at the progression and molecular diagnosis of MGUS and smouldering myeloma. Dr. Ghobrial says that we are very lucky these days, as there are so many developments underway for next generation sequencing and single-cell RNA sequencing. So, it is a perfect time to truly answer the questions of biology and molecular diagnostics of patients with MGUS and smouldering myeloma. Recorded at the 2017 European Multiple Myeloma Academy (EMMA) in Vienna, Austria. This program was sponsored by Celgene through an unrestricted educational grant to Video Journal of Hematological Oncology.