Felicitas Thol, MD, Hannover Medical School, Hannover, Germany, discusses the current treatment landscape for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) at ESH MDS 2021, comparing treatment options for low- and high-risk MDS. For low-risk MDS, Dr Thol highlights the MEDALIST trial (NCT02631070) and the PACE-MDS trial (NCT01749514; NCT02268383) evaluating luspatercept for MDS patients with anemia. She also talks about trials of lenalidomide in low-risk MDS patients with a del(5q) mutation, noting that lenalidomide is not a suitable therapy for patients with TP53 mutations. For high-risk MDS treatment, Dr Thol discusses the use of the hypomethylating agents azacitidine and decitabine, as well as the possibility of allogeneic stem cell transplantation in younger patients. Finally, she discusses the development of targeted drugs such as venetoclax, which has shown efficacy in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. This interview took place during the 2021 European School of Hematology (ESH) 7th Translational Research E-Conference on Myelodysplastic Syndromes.