Patients suffering from acute myeloid leukemia (AML) who have achieved complete remission are still at risk of relapse. Assessing blood counts or examining the morphology of the bone marrow is not sufficient to determine the levels of residual leukemic cells remaining upon completion of therapy. Here, Gail Roboz, MD, from Weill Medical College of Cornell University, New York City, NY, discusses the importance of assessing the levels of minimal residual disease (MRD) and what these levels can mean to the patient. Dr Roboz also emphasizes the need to quantify MRD in AML across the world, which will help clinicians and patients achieve a greater understanding of the effects of MRD. This video was recorded at the 2018 European School of Hematology (ESH) Clinical Updates on Acute Leukemias, held in Budapest, Hungary.