Ruben Mesa, MD of the Mayo Clinic, Phoenix, AZ discusses the impact on myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPN) symptoms and quality of life of frontline pegylated interferon alpha-2a versus hydroxyurea in high-risk polycythemia vera (PV) and essential thrombocythemia (ET). The interim analysis results of this Myeloproliferative Disorders Research Consortium (MPD-RC) 112 global Phase III trial (NCT01258856) were presented at the 2016 American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, held in San Diego, CA. The top-level information shows that pegylated interferon was active and so far, one can say that it is not inferior to hydroxyurea regarding primary endpoints such as controlling blood counts and impact on bone marrow. As part of the trial, they conducted a detailed patient-reported outcome assessment, which showed that there is a low-grade amount of toxicity with pegylated interferon. Prof. Mesa further discusses its impact on MPN symptoms.