Jean-Jacques Kiladjian, MD, PhD of Saint-Louis Hospital & Paris Diderot University, Paris, France discusses the results of two randomized trials on interferon alpha in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs) presented at the 2016 American Society of Hematology (ASH) Annual Meeting, held in San Diego, CA. Prof. Kiladjian highlights the results of the randomized, Phase III PROUD-PV trial comparing ropeginterferon alfa-2b to hydroxyurea in polycythemia vera (PV) patients (NCT01949805). He explains that the first step was to prove non-inferiority of ropeginterferon compared to hydroxyurea in the short-term. The study will continue with the name CONTINUATION-PV and in the longer follow-up, he hopes to see superiority of ropeginterferon. Further, he discusses the preliminary results shown by the Myeloproliferative Disorders Research Consortium (MPD-RC) on pegylated interferon alpha-2a vs hydroxyurea in high-risk polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia (ET) (MPD-RC 112 trial, (NCT01258856).